Genes We Analyse

Below is the list and description of the genes we analyse , with 88 genes and well over 240 genetic variants we have the highest number and most comprehensive database of any genetic Health & Fitness company.

Health Areas Index:

  • V&M = VITAMINS & MINERALS
  • TUT = TIME UNDER TENSION
  • LT = LACTATE THERSHOLD
  • S&R = SETS & REST
  • TPS = TIME PER SESSION
  • HR = HYPERTROPHY RESPONSE
  • PSY = PSYCHOLOGY

ALPL

A GENE FOR... V&M

Alkaline phosphatase, tissue-nonspecific isozyme is an enzyme found in your bloodstream. ALP helps break down proteins in the body and exists in different forms, depending on where it originates. It is mostly produced in your liver, but some is also made in your bones, intestines, and kidneys.

ATP2B1

A GENE FOR... V&M

Plasma membrane calcium-transporting ATPase 1 The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the family of P-type primary ion transport ATPases characterised by the formation of an aspartyl phosphate intermediate during the reaction cycle. This magnesium dependent enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of ATP coupled with the transport of calcium out of the cell.

APOA5

A GENE FOR... FAT METABOLISM, DIET

Apolipoprotein A-V is expressed almost exclusively in the liver tissue; some minor expressions have also been detected in the small intestine. APOA5 mainly functions to influence plasma triglyceride levels. The first suggested mechanism supposes that APOA5 functions as an activator of lipoprotein lipase (which is a key enzyme in triglyceride catabolism) and, through this process, enhances the metabolism.

ADIPOQ

A GENE FOR... DIET, BLOOD PRESSURE, VASCULAR TONE

Adiponectin is a protein hormone that modulates a number of metabolic processes, including glucose regulation and fatty acid oxidation. Adiponectin is exclusively secreted from adipose tissue. This enzyme suppresses pro-inflammatory cytokines, induces anti-inflammatory cytokines and improves response to insulin. Certain gene variants will indicate decreased production and increased risk of diabetes and atherosclerosis.

AGT

A GENE FOR... BLOOD PRESSURE, POWER, STRENGTH

Angiotensin is a peptide hormone that causes vasoconstriction and a subsequent increase in blood pressure. AGT have been implicated in risk for hypertension and related disorders, such as heart disease and pre-eclampsia. This gene makes angiotensinogen. Certain gene variants will indicate increased production of angiotensinogen, which can result in increased vasoconstriction and high blood pressure.

AGTR1

A GENE FOR... BLOOD PRESSURE

Indicates activity of the receptor. Certain gene variants will indicate increased receptor function, which can result in increased vasoconstriction and high blood pressure.

AMPD1

A GENE FOR... ENERGY, POWER, STRENGTH, TUT, RECOVERY, LT, S&R, TPS

Adenosine monophosphate deaminase 1 catalyzes the deamination of AMP to IMP in skeletal muscle and plays an important role in the purine nucleotide cycle. Deficiency of the muscle-specific enzyme is apparently a common cause of exercise-induced myopathy and probably the most common cause of metabolic myopathy in the human.

ACE

A GENE FOR... POWER, ENDURANCE STRENGTH, BLOOD PRESSURE, TUT, S&R, TPS

Angiotensin-converting enzyme, or ACE, is a central component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which controls blood pressure by regulating the volume of fluids in the body. It converts the hormone angiotensin I to the active vasoconstrictor angiotensin II. Therefore, ACE indirectly increases blood pressure by causing blood vessels to constrict. ACE gene variants will affect an individual’s endurance/power and strength.

ACTN3

A GENE FOR... SPEED, POWER, STRENGTH, TUT, LT, S&R

ACTN3 is probably the most well known gene, as has been nicknamed the “Sprinters” gene. Ability The gene instructs the body to produce a specific muscle protein called Alpha-actinin-3 which has been shown to contribute to a muscles ability to generate forceful, repetitive, muscle contractions.

ADRB2

A GENE FOR... ADRENAL FUNCTION, ENERGY METABOLISM & THERMOGENESIS, POWER, STRENGTH, DIET

The beta-2 adrenergic receptor (β2 adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRB2, is a cell membrane-spanning beta-adrenergic receptor that interacts with (binds) epinephrine, a hormone and neurotransmitter (ligand synonym, adrenaline) whose signaling, via a downstream L-type calcium channel interaction, mediates physiologic responses such as smooth muscle relaxation and bronchodilation. Unlike other adrenergic receptors, norepinephrine does not produce β2 receptor stimulation. This receptor is involved in mobilising fat for energy production in response to stress. Certain gene variants will indicate decreased receptor function and decreased ability to burn body fat. Associated with increased risk of obesity, weight gain, difficulty losing weight, rebound weight gain and decreased tolerance to carbohydrates.

ADRB3

A GENE FOR... ENERGY METABOLISM & THERMOGENESIS, POWER, STRENGTH, DIET, TPS

Beta-3 adrenergic receptor (β3 adrenoreceptor), also known as ADRB3, is a beta-adrenergic receptor, is located mainly in visceral (belly) fat where it controls the breakdown of fat and is involved in the regulation of lipolysis and thermogenesis. Certain gene variants will indicate decreased receptor function and decreased ability to burn visceral fat. Associated with increased risk of obesity, weight gain and difficulty losing weight.

BDNF

A GENE FOR... DIET

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor acts on certain neurons of the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system, helping to support the survival of existing neurons, and encourage the growth and differentiation of new neurons and synapses. In the brain, it is active in the hippocampus, cortex, and basal forebrain—areas vital to learning, memory, and higher thinking. It is also expressed in the retina, motor neurons, the kidneys, saliva, and the prostate.[ And BDNF itself is important for long-term memory.

BCMO1

A GENE FOR... V&M

Beta-carotene oxygenase 1 The protein encoded by this gene is a key enzyme in beta-carotene metabolism to vitamin A. It catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of beta, beta-carotene into two retinal molecules. Vitamin A metabolism is important for vital processes such as vision, embryonic development, cell differentiation, and membrane and skin protection.

BHMT

A GENE FOR... METHYLATION & HOMOCYSTEINE

BHMT is a Zn dependent enzyme primarily found in the kidneys and liver, which uses choline to re-methylate up to 50% homocysteine (Hcy) and therefore has a strong association with circulating Hcy concentrations. When folate dependent methionine synthesis is impaired, by either genetic or environmental factors, BHMT plays a critical role in homocysteine homeostasis. Variations in these genes can result in elevated plasma homocysteine concentrations.

CAT

A GENE FOR... ANTI-OXIDANT HEALTH

Neutralizes hydrogen peroxide by converting to water and oxygen.

COMT

A GENE FOR... METHYLATION & HOMOCYSTEINE, S&R , TUT , PSY

Enzyme that clears noradrenaline, adrenaline, dopamine and catechol estrogen. This enzyme plays an important role in mental health. Over activity and under activity of this enzyme both have impact on mental health.

COL1A1

A GENE FOR... POWER, FLEXIBILITY, INJURY, S&R, TUT

Collagen alpha-1 type I collagen encodes the major component of type I collagen found in most connective tissues, including cartilage. COL1A1 encodes the major component of type I collagen, the fibrillar collagen found in most connective tissues, including cartilage. Collagen is a protein that strengthens and supports many tissues in the body, including cartilage, bone, tendon, skin and the white part of the eye.

COL5A1

A GENE FOR... INJURY, S&R, TUT

Collagen alpha-1(V) This gene encodes an alpha chain for one of the low abundance fibrillar collagens. Fibrillar collagen molecules are trimers that can be composed of one or more types of alpha chains. Type V collagen is found in tissues containing type I collagen and appears to regulate the assembly of heterotypic fibers composed of both type I and type V collagen.

CETP

A GENE FOR... CHOLESTEROL REGULATION

This enzyme breaks down HDL. Certain gene variants will indicate increased enzyme activity and increased risk of having low HDL (good cholesterol).

CBS

A GENE FOR... METHYLATION & HOMOCYSTEINE

This enzyme converts homocysteine through to cystathionine to produce hydrogen sulphide, which is a potent vaso-dilator, and glutathione, which is an important anti-oxidant.

CYP1A1

A GENE FOR... DETOXIFICATION

Enzyme located in mainly in gut, breast, lungs and skin. Involved in estrogen metabolism.

CYP1A2

A GENE FOR... DETOXIFICATION

Enzyme located in the liver and accounts for 95% of caffeine metabolism. Also involved in estrogen metabolism. Some gene variants will have decreased CYP1A2 enzyme activity and reduced ability to metabolise caffeine, which can cause health issues with moderate to heavy consumption of caffeine.

CYP1B1

A GENE FOR... DETOXIFICATION

Enzyme located mainly in breast, endometrium and ovaries. Involved in estrogen metabolism. Activity of this enzyme leads to activation of pro-carcinogens.

COX-2-3, COX-2-3

A GENE FOR... PAIN, INFLAMMATION, CONVERTING ARACHIDONIC ACID

COX-2 is the main enzyme that converts arachidonic acid into pro-inflammatory prostaglandins. COX-2 plays a key role in chronic inflammatory events such as pain response, infections, injuries, burns, trauma and fever.

CRP-1, CRP-2 & CRP-3

A GENE FOR... PRO-INFLAMMATION

C - reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein, which is produced in the liver and fat cells, is an important indicator of chronic, systemic (body wide) inflammation. Although CRP is a key component of the human acute phase response, it is also expressed at low levels in apparently healthy individuals. CRP is triggered mainly by IL-6 and is associated with many chronic diseases.

DHCR7

A GENE FOR... V&M

7-dehydrocholesterol reductase, protein encoded by this gene is an enzyme catalyzing the production of cholesterol from 7-Dehydrocholesterol using NADPH.

ELOVL2

A GENE FOR... V&M

Anti-ELOVL Fatty Acid Elongase 2 protein is involved in the pathway polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis, which is part of Lipid metabolism.UniRule annotation2 Publications.

eNOS-2

A GENE FOR... VASCULAR TONE

This enzyme is involved in nitric oxide production. Certain gene variants will indicate decreased enzyme activity, which can result in decreased production of nitric oxide and a decreased ability to vasodilate, which can result in high blood pressure.

FTO

A GENE FOR... FAT MASS, APPETITE, DIET

Fat mass and obesity-associated protein Certain variants of the FTO gene appear to be correlated with obesity in humans. Increases in hypothalamic expression of FTO are associated with the regulation of energy intake but not feeding reward.

FADS1

A GENE FOR... V&M

Fatty acid desaturase 1 The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene family. Desaturase enzymes regulate unsaturation of fatty acids.

FAB2

A GENE FOR... FAT METABOLISM

Is a fatty acid binding protein that strongly influences fat absorption. Certain gene variants will indicate increased activity and increased fat absorption. This can result in increased risk of obesity, difficulty loosing weight, increased leptin and decreased glucose tolerance.

FUT2

A GENE FOR... V&M, VITAMIN B-12 STATUS

The increased activity of some FUT2 variations may increase the susceptibility to bacterial infection and indirectly increase the risk of vitamin B12 malabsorption, thereby resulting in lower vitamin B12 concentrations.

GPX1

A GENE FOR... ANTI-OXIDANT HEALTH

Neutralizes hydrogen peroxide by converting to water and oxygen. This enzyme requires glutathione.

GDF5

A GENE FOR... INJURY

Growth/differentiation factor 5 is a protein belonging to the transforming growth factor beta superfamily that is expressed in the developing central nervous system.

GC

A GENE FOR... V&M

Vitamin D-binding protein is a multifunctional protein found in plasma, ascitic fluid, cerebrospinal fluid and on the surface of many cell types. It binds to vitamin D and its plasma metabolites and transports them to target tissues.

GCLC

A GENE FOR... DETOXIFICATION

First-rate limiting enzyme involved in glutathione production.

GCLM

A GENE FOR... DETOXIFICATION

Second-rate limiting enzyme involved in glutathione production.

GSTP1

A GENE FOR... DETOXIFICATION

The enzyme that joins (conjugates) glutathione to toxins, estrogen metabolites and ROS, to render them safe and able to be excreted.

HO-1

A GENE FOR... DETOXIFICATION

Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant enzyme. Located mainly in the brain, endothelial cells, gut and lungs.

IGF2

A GENE FOR... S&R, TPS, TUT

Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF-2) is one of three protein hormones that share structural similarity to insulin. The major role of IGF-2 is as a growth-promoting hormone during gestation.

IGF2-AS

A GENE FOR... RECOVERY, TPS

IGF2 antisense RNA This gene is expressed in antisense to the insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) gene and is imprinted and paternally expressed. It is thought to be non-coding because the putative protein is not conserved and translation is predicted to trigger nonsense mediated decay (NMD).

IL-6

A GENE FOR... INFLAMMATION, POWER, STRENGTH, RECOVERY, DIET

Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is an that acts as both a pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory . Interleukin 6 is secreted by muscles during exercise and to stimulate immune response, e.g. during infection and after trauma, especially burns or other tissue damage leading to inflammation. In muscle and fatty tissue, IL-6 stimulates energy mobilisation that leads to increased body temperature. However certain gene variants are associated with the highest IL-6 and CRP serum levels for most clinical applications, especially Caucasian populations.

IL-1α-1, IL-1α-2 & IL-1-β

THE GENES FOR... Pro- Inflammation

The major role of the IL-1 genes is to act as a key regulator of the pro-inflammatory responses to tissue injuries as well as the promotion of fever and sepsis. Two forms of the IL-1 family of cytokines, IL1α and IL-1β, which are produced predominantly in macrophages, play critical roles in many autoimmune diseases. IL-1 genes trigger IL-6, IL-8 and TNFα.

IL-8

A GENE FOR... Pro- Inflammation

Produced early in the inflammatory response and controls activity of white blood cells / neutrophils. Persists for weeks once released. Triggered by IL-1α, IL-1β and TNFα.

IL-18

A GENE FOR... Pro- Inflammation

Triggers TNFα and decreases production of anti-inflammatory IL-10.

IL-10-1, IL-10-2 & IL-10-3

THE GENES FOR... ANTI - INFLAMMATION

IL-10 is an immune regulating and anti-inflammatory gene whose main function seems to be to limit and ultimately terminate the inflammatory signal in inflammatory cells. Therefore the ability to produce IL-10 may be critical to the final outcome of an inflammatory response. IL-10 inhibits the pro-inflammatory IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNFα genes.

LEP-R

A GENE FOR... FAT METABOLISM, HR

Leptin receptor also known as LEP-R The hormone regulates adipose-tissue mass through effects on hunger and energy use. It acts through the leptin receptor (LEP-R), a single-transmembrane-domain receptor of the family. In hypothalamic neurons, adequate leptin receptor function and subsequent regulation of energy metabolism and body weight depends on interactions of the receptor with in the cell membrane. HR,

LRP5

A GENE FOR... V&M,

Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 variations in LRP5 can lead to considerable changes in bone mass. A causes -pseudoglioma (decrease in bone mass), while a causes drastic increases in bone mass.

LEPR-1, LEPR-2

A GENE FOR... FAT METABOLISM

Leptin is a hormone that is produced by fat cells and circulates at levels proportional to body fat content. Leptin will exert its effect by binding to the leptin receptor and regulates appetite and metabolism. Also regulates production of inflammatory cytokines. Certain gene variants are associated with increased risk of being overweight and obese.

LIPC

A GENE FOR... CHOLESTEROL REGULATION

This enzyme breaks down lipids. Certain gene variants will indicate increased enzyme activity and increased risk of having low HDL (good cholesterol).

MTHFR

A GENE FOR... METHYLATION & HOMOCYSTEINE

Methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is the rate-limiting in the methyl cycle, and it is encoded by the MTHFR . Natural variation in this gene is common in healthy people. Although some variants have been reported to influence susceptibility to certain diseases. V&M,

MTHFR-1, MTHFR-2

A GENE FOR... METHYLATION & HOMOCYSTEINE

Enzyme that converts folic acid to the active form of folate, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate. Certain variants indicate low enzyme activity and decreased levels of the active form of folate.

MTRR

A GENE FOR... METHYLATION & HOMOCYSTEINE

This enzyme keeps the MTR enzyme active.

MUC1

A GENE FOR... V&M

Mucin 1, cell surface associated (MUC1) Mucins line the apical surface of epithelial cells in the lungs, stomach, intestines, eyes and several other organs. Mucins protect the body from infection by s.

NADPH-CYBA

A GENE FOR...VASCULAR TONE

This enzyme produces ROS in the endothelial cells. Certain gene variants will indicate increased enzyme activity, which leads to increased oxidative stress, and damage to the blood vessels.

NOS3

A GENE FOR... BLOOD CIRCULATION, POWER, STRENGTH

Nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3) This enzyme is one of three that synthesize (NO), NO produced by eNOS in the vascular endothelium plays crucial roles in regulating vascular tone, cellular proliferation, adhesion, and . Therefore, a functional eNOS is essential for a healthy cardiovascular system and may affect power/strength performance.

NQ01

A GENE FOR... DETOXIFICATION

This enzyme has strong antioxidant capacity. Described as the anti-cancer enzyme. NQO1 is capable of quenching superoxide and other radical species.

NRf2

A GENE FOR... TPS

Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2, Nrf2 is a (bZIP) protein that regulates the expression of proteins that protect against triggered by injury and inflammation.

PAI-1

A GENE FOR... VASCULAR TONE

This enzyme is very active in your blood vessels. Certain gene variants will indicate increased enzyme activity, which will increase risk of atherosclerosis, atherothrombosis, metabolic syndrome and abnormal blood lipids

PON-1

A GENE FOR... CHOLESTEROL REGULATION

Is an antioxidant protein that protects LDL from oxidation. Oxidized LDL is a major cardiovascular risk factor. Certain gene variants indicate decreased enzyme activity and increased risk of having oxidized LDL.

PLIN1

A GENE FOR... DIET

Perilipin, also known as lipid droplet-associated protein or PLIN Perilipin is a protein that coats in, the -storing cells in. Perilipin acts as a protective coating from the body’s natural, such as, which break into and free for use in, a process called.

PPARGC1A

A GENE FOR... POWER, ENDURANCE, VO2, LT, TPS

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha PGC-1α is a transcriptional that regulates the genes involved in . Endurance exercise has been shown to activate the PGC-1α gene in human skeletal muscle. This protein may be also involved in controlling blood pressure, regulating cellular cholesterol homoeostasis, and the development of obesity.

A GENE FOR... FAT METABOLISM

Critical role in the maintenance of glucose, lipid, and energy homeostasis. Co-activator of antioxidant genes and is a master regulator of mitochondrial function and mitochondrial gene expression. Certain gene variants will indicate decreased activity of this protein. This can lead to increased risk of obesity, diabetes, neurodegeneration and cardiomyopathy.

PPARA

A GENE FOR... FAT BURNING, POWER, STRENGTH

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-alpha), PPAR-alpha is a transcription factor and a major regulator of lipid metabolism in the liver. PPAR-alpha is activated under conditions of energy deprivation and is necessary for the process of , a key adaptive response to prolonged fasting.

PPARG

A GENE FOR... FAT/CARB RESPONSE, DIET

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma regulates fatty acid storage and glucose metabolism. The genes activated by PPARG stimulate lipid uptake and by fat cells.

SLC19A1

A GENE FOR... V&M

Solute carrier family 19 (folate transporter), member 1 Transport of compounds into cells . Individuals carrying a specific of SLC19A1 have lower levels of folate.

TMPRSS6

A GENE FOR... V&M

Transmembrane protease, serine 6 The protein encoded by this gene is a type II transmembrane serine proteinase that is found attached to the cell surface. The encoded protein may be involved in matrix remodeling processes in the liver.

TF

A GENE FOR... V&M

Transferrins are iron-binding that control the level of free in . When a transferrin protein loaded with iron encounters a on the surface of a , e.g., erythroid precursors in the bone marrow, it binds to it and is transported into the cell in a by .

TFAP2B

A GENE FOR... DIET,

Transcription factor AP-2 beta are thought to stimulate cell proliferation and suppress terminal differentiation of specific cell types. Cell proliferation is a process that results in an increase of the number of cells, and is defined by the balance between cell divisions and cell loss through cell death or differentiation.

TCN2

A GENE FOR... VITAMIN B-12 STATUS, V&M

Gene variations in TCN2 can result in decreased cellular and plasma concentrations of TC and thereby influence the cellular availability of vitamin B12. This could result in a low vitamin B12 status and hence higher homocysteine levels. The effects of these variations are more pronounced in vegetarians and vegans compared with the rest of the population.

TCF7L2

A GENE FOR... DIET

Transcription factor 7-like 2 is, to date, the most significant genetic marker associated with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk. SNPs in this gene are linked to higher risk to develop , as well as .

TRHR

A GENE FOR... HR

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor (TRHR) , is a which binds the tripeptide . The TRHR are found in the and when bound by TRH act (through ) to increase . HR,

TNFα

A GENE FOR... PRO-INFLAMMATION

Immune system produces TNFα to kill bacteria, viruses and parasites. Body fat produces TNFα. Triggers CRP, COX-2, IL-6, IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-8.

UCP1, UCP3

GENES FOR... ENERGY METABOLISM & THERMOGENESIS, DIET

These uncoupling proteins' is used to convert fat into heat by non-shivering . Certain gene variants will indicate decreased activity and decreased ability to burn body fat for heat. Resistance (weights) exercise is the best exercise for fat burning in people who have slower acting variants.

UCP2

A GENE FOR... METABOLISM, TPS

Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP) are members of the larger family of mitochondrial anion carrier proteins (MACP). UCPs separate oxidative phosphorylation from ATP synthesis with energy dissipated as heat, also referred to as the mitochondrial proton leak. TPS, TT,

VDR, VDR2

GENES FOR... VITAMIN D, V & M

Calcitriol receptor, also known as the Receptor (VDR) These genes encode the nuclear hormone receptor for . This receptor also functions as a receptor for the secondary . The receptor belongs to the family of trans-acting transcriptional regulatory factors and shows similarity of sequence to the steroid and thyroid hormone receptors. Certain gene variants will show decreased receptor activity and a decreased ability for vitamin D to exert its effect on target tissue such as bone, immune, skin, nervous, endothelial, hair follicle.

VEGF

A GENE FOR... NEW BLOOD VESSELS, POWER, STRENGTH

(VEGF) is an important signaling involved in both (the formation of the ) and (the growth of blood vessels from pre-existing vasculature) adaptations due to training. As its name implies, VEGF activity is restricted mainly to cells of the vascular , although it does have effects on a limited number of other cell types.

Free Guide

Guide To Genetic Testing

We have recently produced a free ‘Beginners Guide To Genetic Testing’ ebook, which you can download from the link below.

Download Your Free Ebook

Associates

...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...
...